Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

National data

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Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of GDP

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector1.381.41--1.44----
  Government sector0.560.57--0.55----
  Higher education sector0.020.02--0.05----
  Private non-profit sector0.010.01--0.01----
  Abroad0.310.32--0.41----
  Total2.272.332.392.462.552.58
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.990.991.010.971.04--
  Government sector0.620.640.660.660.63--
  Higher education sector0.010.010.000.000.00--
  Private non-profit sector0.060.060.060.050.05--
  Abroad0.240.230.250.310.28--
  Total1.921.931.981.982.001.99
France
  Business enterprise sector1.231.231.24------
  Government sector0.790.790.77------
  Higher education sector0.020.020.02------
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.02------
  Abroad0.170.180.17------
  Total2.232.242.232.272.252.19
Germany
  Business enterprise sector1.901.851.891.911.90--
  Government sector0.840.820.820.810.83--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Abroad0.120.150.140.180.17--
  Total2.872.822.872.912.923.02
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.331.441.471.521.661.70
  Government sector1.100.991.100.990.950.93
  Higher education sector--0.020.000.020.000.00
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.020.020.02
  Abroad0.470.490.500.500.500.50
  Total2.912.953.083.053.133.16
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.730.760.800.820.87--
  Government sector0.460.480.470.460.44--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Private non-profit sector0.080.080.080.080.08--
  Abroad0.320.310.290.290.26--
  Total1.591.641.661.671.681.66
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector1.201.191.221.221.23--
  Government sector0.700.700.690.690.68--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Abroad0.160.180.180.19----
  Total2.102.102.122.132.132.15
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1.101.111.121.131.16--
  Government sector0.660.660.650.640.63--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.030.030.03--
  Abroad0.190.200.200.220.20--
  Total2.002.022.032.042.042.06

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of total R&D expenditure

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector60.6160.57--58.60----
  Government sector24.5124.27--22.51----
  Higher education sector1.011.06--1.99----
  Private non-profit sector0.430.43--0.36----
  Abroad13.4413.67--16.55----
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector51.5651.1251.0948.6552.02--
  Government sector32.4333.3633.1833.1331.33--
  Higher education sector0.420.290.170.160.13--
  Private non-profit sector3.073.062.912.562.57--
  Abroad12.5212.1712.6515.5113.92--
France
  Business enterprise sector55.3355.0755.65------
  Government sector35.3535.3034.59------
  Higher education sector0.940.961.02------
  Private non-profit sector0.780.780.95------
  Abroad7.607.897.79------
Germany
  Business enterprise sector66.0765.4465.9865.6065.22--
  Government sector29.2129.1028.7127.8928.52--
  Private non-profit sector0.390.310.310.360.31--
  Abroad4.325.155.006.155.95--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector45.6948.7547.7049.7453.1153.98
  Government sector37.7533.5735.6232.5930.3529.49
  Higher education sector--0.590.000.600.000.00
  Private non-profit sector0.460.480.480.520.530.56
  Abroad16.1116.6116.1916.5516.0115.98
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector45.6146.2148.0448.9651.77--
  Government sector28.6729.1228.3627.6726.26--
  Higher education sector1.151.271.241.371.36--
  Private non-profit sector4.734.724.814.915.00--
  Abroad19.8418.6817.5417.0915.62--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector57.0956.8257.2657.0057.60--
  Government sector33.3533.1332.5032.1131.86--
  Higher education sector0.740.760.800.83----
  Private non-profit sector0.950.910.940.940.86--
  Abroad7.868.388.509.12----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector55.1355.1755.4655.2956.57--
  Government sector32.7532.5431.9431.3230.90--
  Higher education sector0.800.830.860.91----
  Private non-profit sector1.591.571.641.701.62--
  Abroad9.739.8910.1010.7710.03--

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

millions of euro

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector5,338.955,546.00--5,928.93----
  Government sector2,159.172,222.55--2,277.16----
  Higher education sector88.7497.50--201.20----
  Private non-profit sector37.9539.06--36.60----
  Abroad1,184.391,251.84--1,674.31----
  Total8,809.199,156.959,551.2410,118.2010,809.1311,336.40
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector6,451.436,516.166,778.446,662.797,358.26--
  Government sector4,057.384,251.524,402.124,537.054,432.07--
  Higher education sector52.7237.0022.4421.9118.82--
  Private non-profit sector384.17390.20385.91349.94364.14--
  Abroad1,566.911,551.141,678.952,124.111,969.15--
  Total12,512.6212,746.0513,267.8613,695.7914,144.4014,675.50
France
  Business enterprise sector25,738.1126,083.6726,669.10------
  Government sector16,446.1016,718.0416,573.54------
  Higher education sector439.37456.75487.21------
  Private non-profit sector361.50368.51457.23------
  Abroad3,533.953,735.083,731.65------
  Total46,519.0447,362.0547,918.7449,839.1350,099.3350,158.87
Germany
  Business enterprise sector52,271.7552,175.9555,588.8058,238.5360,116.54--
  Government sector23,110.8823,197.9824,183.6924,762.2526,290.16--
  Private non-profit sector307.42245.80262.85318.59284.63--
  Abroad3,420.334,109.784,211.425,462.455,482.23--
  Total79,110.3879,729.5184,246.7788,781.8292,173.5699,052.15
Austria
  Business enterprise sector4,243.334,665.754,901.285,222.225,912.706,304.74
  Government sector3,506.213,213.533,660.263,421.723,379.043,443.82
  Higher education sector--56.320.0063.240.000.00
  Private non-profit sector42.3645.4749.6954.2959.3264.82
  Abroad1,495.941,590.211,663.951,737.691,782.171,865.93
  Total9,287.849,571.2810,275.1810,499.1511,133.2311,679.31
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector15,189.5415,710.2318,237.6921,333.4320,928.37--
  Government sector9,549.649,901.6810,766.7812,055.9410,617.33--
  Higher education sector381.68432.95470.41597.00548.26--
  Private non-profit sector1,575.041,604.151,827.692,139.572,019.28--
  Abroad6,607.846,349.706,657.497,448.206,313.48--
  Total33,303.7433,998.7137,960.0643,573.9940,426.6038,898.14
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector117,843.20118,679.25123,779.15128,171.32133,119.61--
  Government sector68,838.6669,199.5270,268.1972,191.2373,630.01--
  Higher education sector1,525.001,595.401,725.991,875.35----
  Private non-profit sector1,966.091,895.842,032.102,111.441,976.84--
  Abroad16,228.8017,508.4818,376.9720,499.94----
  Total206,401.75208,878.49216,182.39224,849.28231,112.07241,427.89
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector148,835.67151,166.77158,129.86167,019.94172,817.29--
  Government sector88,427.2989,148.6491,069.6794,630.5994,392.02--
  Higher education sector2,170.152,270.072,455.492,750.20----
  Private non-profit sector4,286.274,299.924,687.185,146.364,936.40--
  Abroad26,259.3227,111.1028,794.8432,548.7830,624.74--
  Total269,978.70273,996.50285,137.04302,095.87305,479.66317,084.22

Regional data

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Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of GDP

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector1.381.41--1.44----
  Government sector0.560.57--0.55----
  Higher education sector0.020.02--0.05----
  Private non-profit sector0.010.01--0.01----
  Abroad0.310.32--0.41----
  Total2.272.332.392.462.552.58
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector0.630.66--0.86----
  Government sector0.580.61--0.58----
  Higher education sector0.030.03--0.08----
  Private non-profit sector0.030.03--0.02----
  Abroad0.170.18--0.26----
  Total1.431.511.711.81----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector1.521.55--1.57----
  Government sector0.560.57--0.53----
  Higher education sector0.020.03--0.04----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.00--0.01----
  Abroad0.380.40--0.52----
  Total2.482.542.582.67----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector1.631.67--1.58----
  Government sector0.540.54--0.59----
  Higher education sector0.020.02--0.05----
  Private non-profit sector0.020.02--0.01----
  Abroad0.230.24--0.24----
  Total2.432.492.432.47----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1.101.111.121.131.16--
  Government sector0.660.660.650.640.63--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.030.030.03--
  Abroad0.190.200.200.220.20--
  Total2.002.022.032.042.042.06

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of total R&D expenditure

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector60.6160.57--58.60----
  Government sector24.5124.27--22.51----
  Higher education sector1.011.06--1.99----
  Private non-profit sector0.430.43--0.36----
  Abroad13.4413.67--16.55----
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector43.9743.82--47.72----
  Government sector40.4840.48--32.31----
  Higher education sector1.981.90--4.57----
  Private non-profit sector1.861.71--1.03----
  Abroad11.7112.09--14.37----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector61.1461.05--58.89----
  Government sector22.4922.27--19.94----
  Higher education sector0.900.99--1.44----
  Private non-profit sector0.080.09--0.27----
  Abroad15.4015.60--19.46----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector67.0267.36--64.01----
  Government sector22.1921.60--23.95----
  Higher education sector0.820.85--2.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.660.68--0.23----
  Abroad9.319.51--9.80----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector55.1355.1755.4655.2956.57--
  Government sector32.7532.5431.9431.3230.90--
  Higher education sector0.800.830.860.91----
  Private non-profit sector1.591.571.641.701.62--
  Abroad9.739.8910.1010.7710.03--

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

millions of euro

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector5,338.955,546.00--5,928.93----
  Government sector2,159.172,222.55--2,277.16----
  Higher education sector88.7497.50--201.20----
  Private non-profit sector37.9539.06--36.60----
  Abroad1,184.391,251.84--1,674.31----
  Total8,809.199,156.959,551.2410,118.2010,809.1311,336.40
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector451.37477.45--638.62----
  Government sector415.55441.05--432.38----
  Higher education sector20.3620.66--61.14----
  Private non-profit sector19.1318.60--13.82----
  Abroad120.18131.73--192.33----
  Total1,026.581,089.491,235.211,338.28----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector3,411.283,536.08--3,788.14----
  Government sector1,254.831,290.15--1,282.59----
  Higher education sector50.3057.44--92.75----
  Private non-profit sector4.305.04--17.46----
  Abroad859.04903.77--1,252.10----
  Total5,579.755,792.476,043.446,433.04----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector1,476.301,532.47--1,502.17----
  Government sector488.79491.36--562.19----
  Higher education sector18.0719.40--47.31----
  Private non-profit sector14.5215.42--5.33----
  Abroad205.17216.34--229.88----
  Total2,202.852,275.002,272.592,346.89----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector148,835.67151,166.77158,129.86167,019.94172,817.29--
  Government sector88,427.2989,148.6491,069.6794,630.5994,392.02--
  Higher education sector2,170.152,270.072,455.492,750.20----
  Private non-profit sector4,286.274,299.924,687.185,146.364,936.40--
  Abroad26,259.3227,111.1028,794.8432,548.7830,624.74--
  Total269,978.70273,996.50285,137.04302,095.87305,479.66317,084.22

Description

  •  24/05/2019

Total intramural R&D expenditure financed by the business enterprise sector (BERD), the higher education sector (HERD), the government sector (GORD), the private non-profit sector (PNP), and "abroad" (ABR), as a percentage of GDP, of total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) and in millions of euro.

The Business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The Government sector is composed of all departments, offices, and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services – other than higher education – which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The Private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The Higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations, and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments.

The “Abroad” sector consists of all institutions and individuals located outside the political frontiers of a country, except for vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space satellites operated by domestic organisations – and testing grounds acquired by such organisations – and all international organisations (except business enterprises), including facilities and operations within the frontiers of a country. Funds from abroad include funds from other national governments, international organisations, business enterprises, private non-profit institutions, and higher education institutions. (Frascati Manual)

Other languages

  • Dépenses totales de R&D par source de financement
  • Totale O&O-uitgaven per financieringsbron

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.