Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

National data

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Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of GDP

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector1.301.381.41--1.44--
  Government sector0.500.560.57--0.55--
  Higher education sector0.060.020.02--0.05--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.01--0.01--
  Abroad0.280.310.32--0.41--
  Total2.162.272.332.392.472.49
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.971.001.001.020.97--
  Government sector0.650.630.650.660.66--
  Higher education sector0.010.010.010.000.00--
  Private non-profit sector0.060.060.060.060.05--
  Abroad0.220.240.240.250.31--
  Total1.901.941.952.002.002.03
France
  Business enterprise sector1.211.231.231.24----
  Government sector0.770.790.790.77----
  Higher education sector0.030.020.020.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Abroad0.170.170.180.17----
  Total2.192.232.242.232.272.25
Germany
  Business enterprise sector1.831.901.851.901.91--
  Government sector0.840.840.820.820.81--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Abroad0.120.120.150.140.18--
  Total2.802.872.822.872.922.94
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.231.331.441.471.521.65
  Government sector0.951.100.991.100.990.95
  Higher education sector0.02--0.020.000.020.00
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.020.01
  Abroad0.450.470.490.480.500.48
  Total2.672.912.953.073.053.09
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.770.730.760.800.82--
  Government sector0.510.460.480.470.46--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Private non-profit sector0.080.080.080.080.08--
  Abroad0.300.320.310.290.29--
  Total1.671.601.651.671.671.69
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector1.161.201.191.221.22--
  Government sector0.690.700.700.690.69--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Abroad0.150.170.180.180.20--
  Total2.042.102.102.132.142.13
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1.081.111.111.131.13--
  Government sector0.650.660.660.650.64--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.030.030.03--
  Abroad0.180.200.200.210.22--
  Total1.972.012.022.032.042.03

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of total R&D expenditure

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector60.1560.6160.57--58.60--
  Government sector23.4224.5124.27--22.51--
  Higher education sector2.871.011.06--1.99--
  Private non-profit sector0.600.430.43--0.36--
  Abroad12.9613.4413.67--16.55--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector51.1251.5651.1251.0948.65--
  Government sector33.9432.4333.3633.1833.13--
  Higher education sector0.320.420.290.170.16--
  Private non-profit sector3.303.073.062.912.56--
  Abroad11.3212.5212.1712.6515.51--
France
  Business enterprise sector55.0455.3355.0755.65----
  Government sector35.1535.3535.3034.59----
  Higher education sector1.260.940.961.02----
  Private non-profit sector0.800.780.780.95----
  Abroad7.757.607.897.79----
Germany
  Business enterprise sector65.5966.0765.4465.9865.60--
  Government sector29.8929.2129.1028.7127.89--
  Private non-profit sector0.350.390.310.310.36--
  Abroad4.184.325.155.006.15--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector46.1745.6948.7547.9549.7453.39
  Government sector35.7637.7533.5735.8132.5930.68
  Higher education sector0.67--0.590.000.600.00
  Private non-profit sector0.470.460.480.460.520.45
  Abroad16.9416.1116.6115.7916.5515.48
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector45.8645.6146.2148.0448.96--
  Government sector30.4528.6729.1228.3627.67--
  Higher education sector1.161.151.271.241.37--
  Private non-profit sector4.774.734.724.814.91--
  Abroad17.7619.8418.6817.5417.09--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector56.8157.0956.8257.2657.00--
  Government sector33.7333.3533.1332.5132.11--
  Higher education sector0.930.740.760.800.83--
  Private non-profit sector0.990.950.910.940.94--
  Abroad7.547.868.388.509.12--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector55.0055.1355.1755.4655.29--
  Government sector33.2632.7532.5431.9431.30--
  Higher education sector0.950.800.830.860.91--
  Private non-profit sector1.601.591.571.641.71--
  Abroad9.209.739.8910.1010.79--

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

millions of euro

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector4,914.905,338.955,546.00--5,928.93--
  Government sector1,913.402,159.172,222.55--2,277.16--
  Higher education sector234.5088.7497.50--201.20--
  Private non-profit sector49.1037.9539.06--36.60--
  Abroad1,059.101,184.391,251.84--1,674.31--
  Total8,171.008,809.199,156.959,551.2410,118.2010,517.68
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector6,254.296,451.436,516.166,778.446,662.79--
  Government sector4,152.704,057.384,251.524,402.124,537.05--
  Higher education sector38.5652.7237.0022.4421.91--
  Private non-profit sector404.35384.17390.20385.91349.94--
  Abroad1,385.401,566.911,551.141,678.952,124.11--
  Total12,235.3012,512.6212,746.0513,267.8613,695.7914,281.00
France
  Business enterprise sector24,831.3825,738.1126,083.6726,669.10----
  Government sector15,856.2916,446.1016,718.0416,573.54----
  Higher education sector569.41439.37456.75487.21----
  Private non-profit sector359.67361.50368.51457.23----
  Abroad3,494.763,533.953,735.083,731.65----
  Total45,111.5146,519.0447,362.0547,918.7449,839.1350,099.33
Germany
  Business enterprise sector49,562.0152,271.7552,175.9555,588.8058,238.53--
  Government sector22,585.4723,110.8823,197.9824,183.6924,762.25--
  Private non-profit sector263.46307.42245.80262.85318.59--
  Abroad3,158.133,420.334,109.784,211.425,462.45--
  Total75,569.0779,110.3879,729.5184,246.7788,781.8292,419.18
Austria
  Business enterprise sector3,820.904,243.334,665.754,901.285,222.225,822.68
  Government sector2,959.393,506.213,213.533,660.263,421.723,345.55
  Higher education sector55.14--56.320.0063.240.00
  Private non-profit sector39.2442.3645.4746.7754.2949.49
  Abroad1,401.671,495.941,590.211,614.071,737.691,688.37
  Total8,276.349,287.849,571.2810,222.3810,499.1510,906.09
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector14,466.5315,189.5415,710.2318,237.6921,333.43--
  Government sector9,606.759,549.649,901.6810,766.7812,055.94--
  Higher education sector364.79381.68432.95470.41597.00--
  Private non-profit sector1,505.011,575.041,604.151,827.692,139.57--
  Abroad5,603.996,607.846,349.706,657.497,448.20--
  Total31,547.0733,303.7433,998.7137,960.0643,573.9940,451.50
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector113,659.90117,843.20118,679.25123,750.99128,171.32--
  Government sector67,492.1968,838.6669,199.5270,253.5272,191.23--
  Higher education sector1,862.261,525.001,595.401,725.781,875.35--
  Private non-profit sector1,985.921,966.091,895.842,031.782,111.44--
  Abroad15,082.9116,228.8017,508.4818,367.5320,499.94--
  Total200,083.18206,401.75208,878.49216,129.59224,849.28229,335.26
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector142,928.15148,835.67151,166.77158,093.39166,860.66--
  Government sector86,430.7088,427.2989,148.6491,057.0394,472.92--
  Higher education sector2,456.542,170.152,270.072,455.282,750.20--
  Private non-profit sector4,164.814,286.274,299.924,687.105,155.74--
  Abroad23,912.8826,259.3227,111.1028,791.4432,553.34--
  Total259,893.08269,978.70273,996.50285,084.24301,792.87302,929.00

Regional data

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Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of GDP

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector1.301.381.41--1.44--
  Government sector0.500.560.57--0.55--
  Higher education sector0.060.020.02--0.05--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.01--0.01--
  Abroad0.280.310.32--0.41--
  Total2.162.272.332.392.472.49
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.630.66--0.86--
  Government sector--0.580.61--0.58--
  Higher education sector--0.030.03--0.08--
  Private non-profit sector--0.030.03--0.02--
  Abroad--0.170.18--0.26--
  Total--1.431.511.711.81--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--1.521.55--1.57--
  Government sector--0.560.57--0.53--
  Higher education sector--0.020.03--0.04--
  Private non-profit sector--0.000.00--0.01--
  Abroad--0.380.40--0.52--
  Total--2.482.542.582.67--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--1.631.67--1.58--
  Government sector--0.540.54--0.59--
  Higher education sector--0.020.02--0.05--
  Private non-profit sector--0.020.02--0.01--
  Abroad--0.230.24--0.24--
  Total--2.432.492.432.47--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1.081.111.111.131.13--
  Government sector0.650.660.660.650.64--
  Higher education sector0.020.020.020.020.02--
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.030.030.03--
  Abroad0.180.200.200.210.22--
  Total1.972.012.022.032.042.03

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

% of total R&D expenditure

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector60.1560.6160.57--58.60--
  Government sector23.4224.5124.27--22.51--
  Higher education sector2.871.011.06--1.99--
  Private non-profit sector0.600.430.43--0.36--
  Abroad12.9613.4413.67--16.55--
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--43.9743.82--47.72--
  Government sector--40.4840.48--32.31--
  Higher education sector--1.981.90--4.57--
  Private non-profit sector--1.861.71--1.03--
  Abroad--11.7112.09--14.37--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--61.1461.05--58.89--
  Government sector--22.4922.27--19.94--
  Higher education sector--0.900.99--1.44--
  Private non-profit sector--0.080.09--0.27--
  Abroad--15.4015.60--19.46--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--67.0267.36--64.01--
  Government sector--22.1921.60--23.95--
  Higher education sector--0.820.85--2.02--
  Private non-profit sector--0.660.68--0.23--
  Abroad--9.319.51--9.80--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector55.0055.1355.1755.4655.29--
  Government sector33.2632.7532.5431.9431.30--
  Higher education sector0.950.800.830.860.91--
  Private non-profit sector1.601.591.571.641.71--
  Abroad9.209.739.8910.1010.79--

Total R&D expenditure by source of funds

millions of euro

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector4,914.905,338.955,546.00--5,928.93--
  Government sector1,913.402,159.172,222.55--2,277.16--
  Higher education sector234.5088.7497.50--201.20--
  Private non-profit sector49.1037.9539.06--36.60--
  Abroad1,059.101,184.391,251.84--1,674.31--
  Total8,171.008,809.199,156.959,551.2410,118.2010,517.68
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--451.37477.45--638.62--
  Government sector--415.55441.05--432.38--
  Higher education sector--20.3620.66--61.14--
  Private non-profit sector--19.1318.60--13.82--
  Abroad--120.18131.73--192.33--
  Total--1,026.581,089.491,235.211,338.28--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--3,411.283,536.08--3,788.14--
  Government sector--1,254.831,290.15--1,282.59--
  Higher education sector--50.3057.44--92.75--
  Private non-profit sector--4.305.04--17.46--
  Abroad--859.04903.77--1,252.10--
  Total--5,579.755,792.476,043.446,433.04--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--1,476.301,532.47--1,502.17--
  Government sector--488.79491.36--562.19--
  Higher education sector--18.0719.40--47.31--
  Private non-profit sector--14.5215.42--5.33--
  Abroad--205.17216.34--229.88--
  Total--2,202.852,275.002,272.592,346.89--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector142,928.15148,835.67151,166.77158,093.39166,860.66--
  Government sector86,430.7088,427.2989,148.6491,057.0394,472.92--
  Higher education sector2,456.542,170.152,270.072,455.282,750.20--
  Private non-profit sector4,164.814,286.274,299.924,687.105,155.74--
  Abroad23,912.8826,259.3227,111.1028,791.4432,553.34--
  Total259,893.08269,978.70273,996.50285,084.24301,792.87302,929.00

Description

  •  06/11/2018

Total intramural R&D expenditure financed by the business enterprise sector (BERD), the higher education sector (HERD), the government sector (GORD), the private non-profit sector (PNP), and "abroad" (ABR), as a percentage of GDP, of total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) and in millions of euro.

The Business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The Government sector is composed of all departments, offices, and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services – other than higher education – which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The Private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The Higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations, and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments.

The “Abroad” sector consists of all institutions and individuals located outside the political frontiers of a country, except for vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space satellites operated by domestic organisations – and testing grounds acquired by such organisations – and all international organisations (except business enterprises), including facilities and operations within the frontiers of a country. Funds from abroad include funds from other national governments, international organisations, business enterprises, private non-profit institutions, and higher education institutions. (Frascati Manual)

Other languages

  • Dépenses totales de R&D par source de financement
  • Totale O&O-uitgaven per financieringsbron

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.