R&D personnel by sector of performance

National data

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R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 2012201320142015201620172018
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.840.850.930.971.021.03--
  Government sector0.130.130.140.140.140.18--
  Higher education sector0.500.510.520.570.540.56--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01----
  Total1.471.501.601.691.701.77--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.870.890.880.920.960.99--
  Government sector0.150.150.160.160.160.16--
  Higher education sector0.360.370.380.380.370.37--
  Private non-profit sector------0.00------
  Total1.381.411.421.471.491.52--
France
  Business enterprise sector0.910.920.910.92--0.93--
  Government sector0.180.180.180.18--0.18--
  Higher education sector0.400.400.410.44--0.43--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.030.030.03--0.03--
  Total1.521.541.531.57--1.56--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.870.850.870.940.950.98--
  Government sector0.230.230.240.240.240.23--
  Higher education sector0.300.310.310.310.320.33--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total1.411.391.421.491.511.54--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.081.101.161.181.201.22--
  Government sector0.060.060.060.060.110.11--
  Higher education sector0.400.400.410.410.400.41--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.551.571.651.671.731.76--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.540.590.630.660.660.67--
  Government sector0.060.060.050.050.050.04--
  Higher education sector0.580.590.600.600.590.59--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.020.02--
  Total1.201.261.291.321.311.32--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.720.730.740.760.790.81--
  Government sector0.190.190.190.190.190.19--
  Higher education sector0.380.380.380.390.390.39--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.01--0.01--
  Total1.291.311.321.351.371.39--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.630.650.660.690.710.74--
  Government sector0.160.160.160.160.150.15--
  Higher education sector0.380.390.390.400.390.40--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.191.211.231.261.271.30--

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of active population, numerator in FTE

 2012201320142015201620172018
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.790.790.860.900.960.98--
  Government sector0.120.120.130.130.130.17--
  Higher education sector0.470.470.480.530.510.54--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01----
  Total1.381.391.481.581.611.69--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.880.890.880.930.981.02--
  Government sector0.160.150.160.160.160.17--
  Higher education sector0.370.370.380.390.380.38--
  Private non-profit sector------0.00------
  Total1.411.411.431.481.521.57--
France
  Business enterprise sector----0.850.86--0.88--
  Government sector----0.170.17--0.17--
  Higher education sector----0.380.41--0.41--
  Private non-profit sector----0.030.03--0.03--
  Total----1.431.47--1.48--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.910.880.910.980.991.03--
  Government sector0.240.240.250.250.250.25--
  Higher education sector0.320.320.320.330.340.35--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total1.461.441.481.561.571.62--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.081.091.161.171.181.22--
  Government sector0.060.060.060.060.110.11--
  Higher education sector0.400.400.410.410.400.41--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.541.551.641.651.701.76--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.510.570.610.650.650.67--
  Government sector0.050.050.050.050.050.04--
  Higher education sector0.560.570.580.590.580.58--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.020.02--
  Total1.141.201.261.301.301.32--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.680.690.700.730.760.79--
  Government sector0.180.180.180.180.180.18--
  Higher education sector0.360.360.370.380.370.38--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.01--0.01--
  Total1.231.241.261.301.331.37--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.600.610.630.660.690.72--
  Government sector0.150.160.160.160.150.15--
  Higher education sector0.370.370.370.380.380.39--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.131.151.171.211.241.28--

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

FTE

 2012201320142015201620172018
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector38,108.0038,497.0042,391.0044,508.0047,404.0048,615.00--
  Government sector5,818.005,932.006,381.006,470.006,327.008,361.00--
  Higher education sector22,770.0023,156.0023,733.0026,156.0025,006.0026,465.00--
  Private non-profit sector309.00314.00290.00387.00371.00----
  Total67,005.0067,899.0072,794.0077,520.0079,109.0083,441.00--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector76,767.0077,399.0076,708.0081,108.0085,585.0090,037.00--
  Government sector13,496.0013,485.0014,121.0014,348.0013,982.0014,856.00--
  Higher education sector31,952.0032,331.0033,237.0033,604.0033,300.0033,400.00--
  Private non-profit sector------0.00------
  Total122,215.00123,214.00124,066.00129,060.00132,867.00138,292.00--
France
  Business enterprise sector246,438.00251,446.00248,041.00251,444.00--258,670.00--
  Government sector49,903.0049,980.0049,762.0049,413.00--48,800.00--
  Higher education sector108,794.00109,883.00111,700.00120,480.00--119,300.00--
  Private non-profit sector6,645.006,832.007,626.007,307.00--7,900.00--
  Total411,780.00418,141.00417,129.00428,643.00--434,670.00--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector367,478.00360,375.00371,706.00404,767.00413,027.00432,352.00--
  Government sector95,882.0098,161.00101,005.00101,717.00103,206.00103,900.00--
  Higher education sector127,900.00130,079.00132,542.00134,032.00141,661.00145,300.00--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total591,261.00588,615.00605,252.00640,516.00657,894.00681,552.00--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector45,468.0046,412.0049,539.0050,534.0051,953.0054,022.00--
  Government sector2,544.002,538.002,641.002,674.004,842.005,035.00--
  Higher education sector16,678.0016,840.0017,479.0017,682.0017,571.0018,271.00--
  Private non-profit sector399.00396.00480.00507.00531.00553.00--
  Total65,088.0066,186.0070,138.0071,396.0074,897.0077,880.00--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector160,116.00177,948.00192,221.00206,153.00209,584.00215,713.00--
  Government sector16,880.0016,592.0016,250.0014,615.0014,531.0013,999.00--
  Higher education sector173,499.00177,767.00183,023.00186,724.00186,770.00188,036.00--
  Private non-profit sector5,990.005,036.004,787.006,368.006,505.006,762.00--
  Total356,484.00377,343.00396,281.00413,860.00417,390.00424,510.00--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector1,074,294.001,080,983.001,102,388.001,154,469.001,205,326.001,255,495.00--
  Government sector279,035.00280,878.00283,347.00286,434.00287,199.00290,298.00--
  Higher education sector563,538.00572,230.00575,613.00590,272.00592,033.00607,279.00--
  Private non-profit sector20,124.0016,077.0017,299.0017,592.00--17,486.00--
  Total1,936,991.001,950,168.001,978,647.002,048,768.002,102,666.002,170,557.00--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,419,949.001,452,867.001,500,388.001,576,982.001,657,001.001,737,176.00--
  Government sector366,243.00368,954.00370,827.00373,881.00355,724.00360,537.00--
  Higher education sector863,777.00876,287.00888,982.00907,422.00916,721.00943,934.00--
  Private non-profit sector27,550.0022,494.0023,449.0025,134.0026,232.0026,306.00--
  Total2,677,519.002,720,602.002,783,646.002,883,419.002,955,678.003,067,954.00--

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

head count

 2012201320142015201620172018
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector--50,493.00--61,023.00------
  Government sector6,448.006,584.007,051.007,248.00------
  Higher education sector42,356.0042,981.0046,804.0044,858.00------
  Private non-profit sector358.00365.00339.00447.00------
  Total--100,423.00--113,576.00------
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector129,978.00130,094.00132,409.00128,611.00130,026.00----
  Government sector17,780.0017,513.0017,952.0019,163.0019,290.00----
  Higher education sector37,302.0037,640.0038,676.0038,988.0038,434.00----
  Private non-profit sector------0.00------
  Total185,059.00185,246.00189,037.00186,762.00187,750.00----
France
  Business enterprise sector335,822.00342,091.00342,280.00--------
  Government sector51,716.0051,764.0051,564.00--------
  Higher education sector169,776.00172,700.00172,522.00--------
  Private non-profit sector8,598.008,796.009,464.00--------
  Total565,912.00575,351.00575,830.00--------
Germany
  Business enterprise sector--408,512.00--451,040.00------
  Government sector114,389.00116,403.00120,001.00121,157.00123,391.00----
  Higher education sector323,394.00335,928.00340,112.00343,660.00345,145.00----
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total--860,842.00--915,857.00------
Austria
  Business enterprise sector--65,320.00--71,008.00------
  Government sector--6,232.00--6,632.00------
  Higher education sector--44,601.00--47,562.00------
  Private non-profit sector--890.00--969.00------
  Total--117,043.00--126,171.00------
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector204,365.00230,769.00258,680.00274,580.00293,647.00----
  Government sector18,611.0018,143.0017,962.0016,827.0016,527.00----
  Higher education sector350,065.00355,060.00363,134.00371,245.00377,999.00----
  Private non-profit sector7,411.006,304.006,424.007,635.007,752.00----
  Total580,452.00610,276.00646,201.00670,286.00695,925.00----
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector--1,435,715.00--1,528,023.00------
  Government sector346,354.00349,748.00356,976.00372,185.00378,363.00----
  Higher education sector1,124,716.001,144,650.001,144,083.001,165,662.001,148,574.00----
  Private non-profit sector28,343.0022,225.0023,584.00--------
  Total--2,952,338.00--3,089,725.00------
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector--1,903,717.00--2,065,898.00------
  Government sector456,387.00462,383.00470,083.00487,427.00473,129.00----
  Higher education sector1,739,618.001,764,446.001,775,600.001,803,186.001,804,082.00----
  Private non-profit sector37,626.0030,410.0031,920.0033,216.00------
  Total--4,160,955.00--4,389,727.00------

Data for the last year are provisional

Regional data

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R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.840.850.930.971.021.03
  Government sector0.130.130.140.140.140.18
  Higher education sector0.500.510.520.570.540.56
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.471.501.601.691.701.77
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.630.710.74----
  Government sector0.250.250.220.24----
  Higher education sector0.590.590.650.74----
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.020.03----
  Total--1.511.601.75----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.910.981.03----
  Government sector0.140.150.160.16----
  Higher education sector0.510.520.530.53----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.01----
  Total--1.591.681.72----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.830.950.97----
  Government sector0.030.030.050.05----
  Higher education sector0.440.430.430.56----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.00----
  Total--1.291.421.58----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.630.650.660.690.710.74
  Government sector0.160.160.160.160.150.15
  Higher education sector0.380.390.390.400.390.40
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.191.211.231.261.271.30

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of active population, numerator in FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.790.790.860.900.960.98
  Government sector0.120.120.130.130.130.17
  Higher education sector0.470.470.480.530.510.54
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.381.391.481.581.611.69
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.860.940.98----
  Government sector0.350.340.300.32----
  Higher education sector0.800.800.860.98----
  Private non-profit sector0.040.040.030.04----
  Total--2.052.122.33----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.830.900.94----
  Government sector0.130.130.150.15----
  Higher education sector0.470.480.480.49----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.01----
  Total--1.441.531.58----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.680.770.80----
  Government sector0.020.020.040.04----
  Higher education sector0.360.350.350.46----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.00----
  Total--1.051.161.30----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.600.610.630.660.690.72
  Government sector0.150.160.160.160.150.15
  Higher education sector0.370.370.370.380.380.39
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.131.151.171.211.241.28

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector38,108.0038,497.0042,391.0044,508.0047,404.0048,615.00
  Government sector5,818.005,932.006,381.006,470.006,327.008,361.00
  Higher education sector22,770.0023,156.0023,733.0026,156.0025,006.0026,465.00
  Private non-profit sector309.00314.00290.00387.00371.00--
  Total67,005.0067,899.0072,794.0077,520.0079,109.0083,441.00
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--4,368.034,890.315,117.52----
  Government sector1,739.511,745.281,546.541,674.66----
  Higher education sector4,046.044,069.294,470.635,120.96----
  Private non-profit sector208.03202.58165.18204.15----
  Total--10,385.1811,072.6712,117.30----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--23,990.9326,008.4727,493.89----
  Government sector3,732.333,842.344,271.914,238.88----
  Higher education sector13,398.6713,807.9014,013.4114,154.39----
  Private non-profit sector101.20111.71123.57181.66----
  Total--41,752.8844,417.3646,068.82----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--10,137.9711,492.1511,896.72----
  Government sector346.49343.83562.22556.26----
  Higher education sector5,325.075,278.615,248.886,880.41----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.001.001.00----
  Total--15,760.4117,304.2519,334.40----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,419,949.001,452,867.001,500,388.001,576,982.001,657,001.001,737,176.00
  Government sector366,243.00368,954.00370,827.00373,881.00355,724.00360,537.00
  Higher education sector863,777.00876,287.00888,982.00907,422.00916,721.00943,934.00
  Private non-profit sector27,550.0022,494.0023,449.0025,134.0026,232.0026,306.00
  Total2,677,519.002,720,602.002,783,646.002,883,419.002,955,678.003,067,954.00

Data for the last year are provisional

R&D personnel by sector of performance

head count

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector--50,493.00--61,023.00----
  Government sector6,448.006,584.007,051.007,248.00----
  Higher education sector42,356.0042,981.0046,804.0044,858.00----
  Private non-profit sector358.00365.00339.00447.00----
  Total--100,423.00--113,576.00----
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--6,311.00--8,425.00----
  Government sector1,975.001,966.001,725.001,882.00----
  Higher education sector8,862.008,915.009,937.008,813.00----
  Private non-profit sector240.00234.00194.00238.00----
  Total--17,426.00--19,358.00----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--32,262.00--38,397.00----
  Government sector4,103.004,251.004,721.004,723.00----
  Higher education sector23,843.0024,480.0026,394.0026,710.00----
  Private non-profit sector118.00131.00141.00205.00----
  Total--61,124.00--70,035.00----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--11,920.00--14,201.00----
  Government sector370.00367.00605.00643.00----
  Higher education sector9,651.009,586.0010,473.009,335.00----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.004.004.00----
  Total--21,873.00--24,183.00----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector--1,903,717.00--2,065,898.00----
  Government sector456,387.00462,383.00470,083.00487,427.00473,129.00--
  Higher education sector1,739,618.001,764,446.001,775,600.001,803,186.001,804,082.00--
  Private non-profit sector37,626.0030,410.0031,920.0033,216.00----
  Total--4,160,955.00--4,389,727.00----

Data for the last year are provisional

Description

  •  24/05/2019

R&D personnel is defined as all the persons directly employed in R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators, and clerical staff. Four sectors of performance are identified.

The business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The government sector is composed of all departments, offices, and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services – other than higher education – which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations, and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments. (Definitions from Frascati Manual).

R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment (numerator in FTE) and as a % of active population (numerator in FTE). FTE data are a more accurate measure of the volume of human resources devoted to research in a country than head counts or jobs. A person working half-time on R&D during the course of a given year is counted as 0.5 person year in FTE.

Employment (domestic concept - National accounts, ESA2010 11.11) covers all persons engaged in productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the national accounts. Employed persons are either employees (working by agreement for another resident unit and receiving remuneration) or self-employed (owners of unincorporated enterprises). The measure (in % of total employment) proposed by Eurostat using Labour Force Survey data (resident household concept) is not appropriate (especially for regional data) because R&D personnel is measured on a national/regional territory, independently of the personnel's place of residence.

Active population includes both employed (employees and self-employed) and unemployed people, but not the economically inactive, such as pre-school children, school children, students and pensioners.

Data for 2017 are provisional.

Other languages

  • Personnel de R&D par secteur d'exécution
  • O&O-personeel per uitvoeringssector

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.