R&D personnel by sector of performance

National data

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R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 2011201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.770.840.850.930.970.97--
  Government sector0.100.130.130.140.140.14--
  Higher education sector0.500.500.510.520.570.59--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.391.471.501.601.691.71--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.840.870.890.880.920.95--
  Government sector0.130.150.150.160.160.17--
  Higher education sector0.360.360.370.380.380.38--
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00----
  Total1.331.381.411.421.471.50--
France
  Business enterprise sector0.880.910.920.910.92----
  Government sector0.180.180.180.180.18----
  Higher education sector0.400.400.400.410.44----
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.030.030.03----
  Total1.491.521.541.531.57----
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.860.870.850.870.940.95--
  Government sector0.230.230.230.240.240.23--
  Higher education sector0.300.300.310.310.310.33--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total1.381.411.391.421.491.50--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.011.081.101.161.181.20--
  Government sector0.060.060.060.060.060.06--
  Higher education sector0.390.400.400.410.410.42--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.471.551.571.641.671.70--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.540.540.590.630.660.66--
  Government sector0.060.060.060.050.050.04--
  Higher education sector0.600.580.590.600.600.60--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.020.02--
  Total1.211.201.261.291.321.32--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.690.720.730.740.760.76--
  Government sector0.180.190.190.190.190.19--
  Higher education sector0.370.370.380.380.390.39--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01----
  Total1.261.291.301.321.361.35--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.610.630.650.660.690.69--
  Government sector0.160.160.160.160.160.16--
  Higher education sector0.380.380.390.390.400.40--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.161.191.211.231.261.26--

R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of active population, numerator in FTE

 2011201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.730.790.790.860.900.92--
  Government sector0.100.120.120.130.130.14--
  Higher education sector0.470.470.470.480.530.56--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.311.381.391.481.581.62--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.860.880.890.880.930.96--
  Government sector0.130.160.150.160.160.17--
  Higher education sector0.380.370.370.380.390.39--
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00----
  Total1.371.411.411.431.481.52--
France
  Business enterprise sector------0.850.86----
  Government sector------0.170.17----
  Higher education sector------0.380.41----
  Private non-profit sector------0.030.03----
  Total------1.431.47----
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.880.910.880.910.980.99--
  Government sector0.230.240.240.250.250.24--
  Higher education sector0.310.320.320.320.330.34--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total1.421.461.441.481.561.57--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector1.011.081.091.151.171.18--
  Government sector0.060.060.060.060.060.06--
  Higher education sector0.390.400.400.410.410.41--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.461.541.551.631.651.67--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.510.510.570.610.650.65--
  Government sector0.050.050.050.050.050.04--
  Higher education sector0.570.560.570.580.590.59--
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.020.020.02--
  Total1.151.141.201.261.301.31--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.670.680.690.700.730.74--
  Government sector0.180.180.180.180.180.18--
  Higher education sector0.350.350.360.360.380.38--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01----
  Total1.211.231.241.251.301.31--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.580.600.610.630.660.67--
  Government sector0.150.150.160.160.160.15--
  Higher education sector0.360.360.370.370.380.39--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total1.111.131.151.171.211.22--

R&D personnel by sector of performance

FTE

 2011201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector35,011.0038,108.0038,497.0042,391.0044,508.0045,159.00--
  Government sector4,573.005,818.005,932.006,381.006,470.006,708.00--
  Higher education sector22,709.0022,770.0023,156.0023,733.0026,156.0027,461.00--
  Private non-profit sector602.00309.00314.00290.00387.00438.00--
  Total62,895.0067,005.0067,899.0072,794.0077,520.0079,766.00--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector74,011.0076,767.0077,399.0076,708.0081,108.0084,444.00--
  Government sector11,228.0013,496.0013,485.0014,121.0014,348.0014,770.00--
  Higher education sector32,197.0031,952.0032,331.0033,237.0033,604.0034,000.00--
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00----
  Total117,436.00122,215.00123,214.00124,066.00129,060.00133,214.00--
France
  Business enterprise sector239,111.00246,438.00251,446.00248,041.00251,444.00----
  Government sector49,685.0049,903.0049,980.0049,762.0049,413.00----
  Higher education sector107,891.00108,794.00109,883.00111,700.00120,480.00----
  Private non-profit sector5,805.006,645.006,832.007,626.007,307.00----
  Total402,492.00411,780.00418,141.00417,129.00428,643.00----
Germany
  Business enterprise sector357,129.00367,478.00360,375.00371,706.00404,767.00413,027.00--
  Government sector93,663.0095,882.0098,161.00101,005.00101,717.00100,200.00--
  Higher education sector124,308.00127,900.00130,079.00132,542.00134,032.00143,500.00--
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total575,099.00591,261.00588,615.00605,252.00640,516.00656,727.00--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector42,098.0045,468.0046,412.0049,304.0050,534.0052,124.00--
  Government sector2,567.002,544.002,538.002,633.002,674.002,758.00--
  Higher education sector16,096.0016,678.0016,840.0017,431.0017,682.0018,239.00--
  Private non-profit sector410.00399.00396.00474.00507.00523.00--
  Total61,171.0065,088.0066,186.0069,842.0071,396.0073,643.00--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector158,385.00160,116.00177,948.00192,221.00206,153.00209,584.00--
  Government sector16,919.0016,880.0016,592.0016,250.0014,615.0014,010.00--
  Higher education sector175,185.00173,499.00177,767.00183,023.00186,724.00189,809.00--
  Private non-profit sector5,769.005,990.005,036.004,787.006,368.006,495.00--
  Total356,258.00356,484.00377,343.00396,281.00413,860.00419,898.00--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector1,039,945.001,073,981.001,080,983.001,102,079.001,154,469.001,171,002.00--
  Government sector274,949.00278,954.00280,878.00283,320.00286,434.00283,812.00--
  Higher education sector553,519.00557,261.00564,490.00570,545.00592,910.00603,438.00--
  Private non-profit sector20,045.0020,118.0016,077.0017,292.0017,592.00----
  Total1,888,457.001,930,314.001,942,428.001,973,236.002,051,406.002,076,546.00--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,370,740.001,419,650.001,452,867.001,500,082.001,576,271.001,607,301.00--
  Government sector361,800.00366,166.00368,954.00370,802.00373,882.00370,321.00--
  Higher education sector853,329.00857,482.00868,546.00883,910.00910,060.00923,800.00--
  Private non-profit sector27,109.0027,544.0022,494.0023,441.0025,134.0025,902.00--
  Total2,612,978.002,670,842.002,712,861.002,778,235.002,885,346.002,927,324.00--

R&D personnel by sector of performance

head count

 2011201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector46,044.00--50,493.00--61,023.00----
  Government sector5,403.006,448.006,584.007,051.007,248.00----
  Higher education sector42,341.0042,356.0042,981.0046,804.0044,858.00----
  Private non-profit sector636.00358.00365.00339.00447.00----
  Total94,424.00--100,423.00--113,576.00----
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector121,051.00129,978.00130,094.00132,409.00128,611.00----
  Government sector13,447.0017,780.0017,513.0017,952.0019,163.00----
  Higher education sector37,607.0037,302.0037,640.0038,676.0038,988.00----
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00----
  Total172,105.00185,059.00185,246.00189,037.00186,762.00----
France
  Business enterprise sector314,514.00335,822.00342,091.00342,280.00------
  Government sector52,141.0051,716.0051,764.0051,564.00------
  Higher education sector168,061.00169,776.00172,700.00172,522.00------
  Private non-profit sector7,731.008,598.008,796.009,464.00------
  Total542,447.00565,912.00575,351.00575,830.00------
Germany
  Business enterprise sector410,682.00--408,512.00--451,040.00----
  Government sector111,908.00114,389.00116,403.00120,001.00121,157.00----
  Higher education sector312,537.00323,394.00335,928.00340,112.00343,660.00----
  Private non-profit sector--------------
  Total835,127.00--860,842.00--915,857.00----
Austria
  Business enterprise sector58,643.00--65,320.00--71,008.00----
  Government sector6,185.00--6,232.00--6,632.00----
  Higher education sector42,291.00--44,601.00--47,562.00----
  Private non-profit sector830.00--890.00--969.00----
  Total107,949.00--117,043.00--126,171.00----
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector197,233.00204,365.00230,769.00258,680.00274,580.00----
  Government sector18,354.0018,611.0018,143.0017,962.0016,827.00----
  Higher education sector343,045.00350,065.00355,060.00363,134.00371,245.00----
  Private non-profit sector7,138.007,411.006,304.006,424.007,635.00----
  Total565,769.00580,452.00610,276.00646,201.00670,286.00----
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector1,363,620.00--1,435,715.00--1,528,024.00----
  Government sector339,335.00346,354.00349,748.00356,957.00372,185.00----
  Higher education sector1,106,675.001,118,601.001,138,280.001,142,641.001,168,145.00----
  Private non-profit sector28,444.0028,343.0022,225.0023,571.00------
  Total2,838,074.00--2,945,968.00--3,092,209.00----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,771,999.00--1,903,717.00--2,057,038.00----
  Government sector447,180.00456,387.00462,383.00470,064.00485,550.00----
  Higher education sector1,711,134.001,733,503.001,758,076.001,774,158.001,798,694.00----
  Private non-profit sector37,321.0037,626.0030,410.0031,907.0033,088.00----
  Total3,967,634.00--4,154,586.00--4,374,370.00----

Regional data

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R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.770.840.850.930.970.97
  Government sector0.100.130.130.140.140.14
  Higher education sector0.500.500.510.520.570.59
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.391.471.501.601.691.71
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector0.50--0.630.710.74--
  Government sector0.160.250.250.220.24--
  Higher education sector0.580.590.590.650.74--
  Private non-profit sector0.030.030.030.020.03--
  Total1.27--1.511.601.75--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector0.86--0.910.981.03--
  Government sector0.120.140.150.160.16--
  Higher education sector0.500.510.520.530.53--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.000.000.000.01--
  Total1.49--1.591.681.72--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector0.74--0.830.950.97--
  Government sector0.030.030.030.050.05--
  Higher education sector0.460.440.430.430.56--
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.000.00--
  Total1.23--1.291.421.58--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.610.630.650.660.690.69
  Government sector0.160.160.160.160.160.16
  Higher education sector0.380.380.390.390.400.40
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.161.191.211.231.261.26

R&D personnel by sector of performance

% of active population, numerator in FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.730.790.790.860.900.92
  Government sector0.100.120.120.130.130.14
  Higher education sector0.470.470.470.480.530.56
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.311.381.391.481.581.62
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector0.69--0.860.940.98--
  Government sector0.220.350.340.300.32--
  Higher education sector0.820.800.800.860.98--
  Private non-profit sector0.040.040.040.030.04--
  Total1.78--2.052.122.33--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector0.79--0.830.900.94--
  Government sector0.110.130.130.150.15--
  Higher education sector0.460.470.480.480.49--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.000.000.000.01--
  Total1.37--1.441.531.58--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector0.62--0.680.770.80--
  Government sector0.020.020.020.040.04--
  Higher education sector0.380.360.350.350.46--
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.000.00--
  Total1.02--1.051.161.30--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.580.600.610.630.660.67
  Government sector0.150.150.160.160.160.15
  Higher education sector0.360.360.370.370.380.39
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total1.111.131.151.171.211.22

R&D personnel by sector of performance

FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector35,011.0038,108.0038,497.0042,391.0044,508.0045,159.00
  Government sector4,573.005,818.005,932.006,381.006,470.006,708.00
  Higher education sector22,709.0022,770.0023,156.0023,733.0026,156.0027,461.00
  Private non-profit sector602.00309.00314.00290.00387.00438.00
  Total62,895.0067,005.0067,899.0072,794.0077,520.0079,766.00
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector3,415.00--4,368.034,890.315,117.52--
  Government sector1,096.001,739.511,745.281,546.541,674.66--
  Higher education sector4,017.004,046.044,069.294,470.635,120.96--
  Private non-profit sector212.00208.03202.58165.18204.15--
  Total8,739.00--10,385.1811,072.6712,117.30--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector22,530.00--23,990.9326,008.4727,493.89--
  Government sector3,156.003,732.333,842.344,271.914,238.88--
  Higher education sector13,140.0013,398.6713,807.9014,013.4114,154.39--
  Private non-profit sector389.00101.20111.71123.57181.66--
  Total39,215.00--41,752.8844,417.3646,068.82--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector9,066.00--10,137.9711,492.1511,896.72--
  Government sector322.00346.49343.83562.22556.26--
  Higher education sector5,552.005,325.075,278.615,248.886,880.41--
  Private non-profit sector1.000.000.001.001.00--
  Total14,941.00--15,760.4117,304.2519,334.40--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,370,740.001,419,650.001,452,867.001,500,082.001,576,271.001,607,301.00
  Government sector361,800.00366,166.00368,954.00370,802.00373,882.00370,321.00
  Higher education sector853,329.00857,482.00868,546.00883,910.00910,060.00923,800.00
  Private non-profit sector27,109.0027,544.0022,494.0023,441.0025,134.0025,902.00
  Total2,612,978.002,670,842.002,712,861.002,778,235.002,885,346.002,927,324.00

R&D personnel by sector of performance

head count

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector46,044.00--50,493.00--61,023.00--
  Government sector5,403.006,448.006,584.007,051.007,248.00--
  Higher education sector42,341.0042,356.0042,981.0046,804.0044,858.00--
  Private non-profit sector636.00358.00365.00339.00447.00--
  Total94,424.00--100,423.00--113,576.00--
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector4,818.00--6,311.00--8,425.00--
  Government sector1,280.001,975.001,966.001,725.001,882.00--
  Higher education sector8,966.008,862.008,915.009,937.008,813.00--
  Private non-profit sector224.00240.00234.00194.00238.00--
  Total15,288.00--17,426.00--19,358.00--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector28,410.00--32,262.00--38,397.00--
  Government sector3,743.004,103.004,251.004,721.004,723.00--
  Higher education sector23,632.0023,843.0024,480.0026,394.0026,710.00--
  Private non-profit sector410.00118.00131.00141.00205.00--
  Total56,195.00--61,124.00--70,035.00--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector12,816.00--11,920.00--14,201.00--
  Government sector380.00370.00367.00605.00643.00--
  Higher education sector9,743.009,651.009,586.0010,473.009,335.00--
  Private non-profit sector2.000.000.004.004.00--
  Total22,941.00--21,873.00--24,183.00--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector1,771,999.00--1,903,717.00--2,057,038.00--
  Government sector447,180.00456,387.00462,383.00470,064.00485,550.00--
  Higher education sector1,711,134.001,733,503.001,758,076.001,774,158.001,798,694.00--
  Private non-profit sector37,321.0037,626.0030,410.0031,907.0033,088.00--
  Total3,967,634.00--4,154,586.00--4,374,370.00--

Description

  •  06/11/2018

R&D personnel is defined as all the persons directly employed in R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators, and clerical staff. Four sectors of performance are identified.

The business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The government sector is composed of all departments, offices, and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services – other than higher education – which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations, and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments. (Definitions from Frascati Manual).

R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment (numerator in FTE) and as a % of active population (numerator in FTE). FTE data are a more accurate measure of the volume of human resources devoted to research in a country than head counts or jobs. A person working half-time on R&D during the course of a given year is counted as 0.5 person year in FTE.

Employment (domestic concept - National accounts, ESA2010 11.11) covers all persons engaged in productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the national accounts. Employed persons are either employees (working by agreement for another resident unit and receiving remuneration) or self-employed (owners of unincorporated enterprises). The measure (in % of total employment) proposed by Eurostat using Labour Force Survey data (resident household concept) is not appropriate (especially for regional data) because R&D personnel is measured on a national/regional territory, independently of the personnel's place of residence.

Active population includes both employed (employees and self-employed) and unemployed people, but not the economically inactive, such as pre-school children, school children, students and pensioners.

Data for 2016 are provisional.

Other languages

  • Personnel de R&D par secteur d'exécution
  • O&O-personeel per uitvoeringssector

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.