Researchers by sector of performance

National data

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Researchers by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.470.520.520.600.620.60
  Government sector0.060.080.080.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.400.400.410.420.440.45
  Private non-profit sector0.010.000.000.000.010.01
  Total0.941.001.021.111.161.15
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.380.490.540.520.540.57
  Government sector0.080.100.100.100.100.10
  Higher education sector0.240.240.240.250.250.25
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00--
  Total0.690.830.880.870.900.92
France
  Business enterprise sector0.550.580.600.590.61--
  Government sector0.100.100.100.100.10--
  Higher education sector0.260.260.270.270.29--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total0.920.950.980.981.01--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.460.470.470.460.540.54
  Government sector0.130.130.130.120.130.12
  Higher education sector0.230.230.230.240.240.25
  Total0.810.840.840.820.900.92
Austria
  Business enterprise sector0.560.600.610.640.650.66
  Government sector0.040.040.040.040.040.04
  Higher education sector0.290.300.300.320.320.32
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.890.940.961.001.021.04
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.300.300.330.330.340.35
  Government sector0.030.030.030.030.020.02
  Higher education sector0.510.520.530.530.540.54
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.860.860.890.900.910.92
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.370.400.410.410.430.44
  Government sector0.100.110.110.100.110.10
  Higher education sector0.270.270.280.280.290.29
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.01--
  Total0.750.790.800.800.840.84
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.330.350.370.370.400.40
  Government sector0.090.090.090.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.290.290.300.310.310.31
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.720.750.770.780.810.81

Researchers by sector of performance

FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector21,382.0023,464.0023,759.0027,384.0028,474.0028,123.00
  Government sector2,781.003,591.003,657.004,062.004,041.004,208.00
  Higher education sector18,228.0018,361.0018,750.0019,157.0020,362.0021,080.00
  Private non-profit sector294.00181.00189.00217.00302.00360.00
  Total42,686.0045,597.0046,355.0050,820.0053,178.0053,771.00
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector33,609.0043,665.0046,838.0045,684.0047,860.0050,513.00
  Government sector6,761.008,581.008,616.008,624.008,953.009,151.00
  Higher education sector20,965.0020,990.0021,216.0021,921.0022,342.0022,600.00
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00--
  Total61,335.0073,235.0076,670.0076,229.0079,155.0082,264.00
France
  Business enterprise sector148,439.00156,392.00161,882.00161,769.00165,845.00--
  Government sector26,808.0027,413.0028,227.0028,276.0028,445.00--
  Higher education sector71,170.0071,890.0072,749.0073,393.0079,622.00--
  Private non-profit sector2,830.003,218.003,364.003,870.003,720.00--
  Total249,247.00258,913.00266,222.00267,308.00277,631.00--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector190,693.00199,623.00198,585.00198,076.00230,823.00235,758.00
  Government sector54,185.0055,597.0056,755.0052,854.0054,011.0054,100.00
  Higher education sector93,811.0097,199.0099,123.00100,992.00103,148.00110,800.00
  Total338,689.00352,419.00354,463.00351,923.00387,982.00400,658.00
Austria
  Business enterprise sector23,138.0025,180.0025,752.0027,240.0027,872.0028,750.00
  Government sector1,511.001,555.001,567.001,648.001,682.001,735.00
  Higher education sector12,199.0012,704.0012,846.0013,416.0013,658.0014,088.00
  Private non-profit sector266.00262.00261.00324.00350.00361.00
  Total37,114.0039,701.0040,426.0042,627.0043,562.0044,933.00
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector89,043.0090,422.0098,469.00102,221.00105,774.00110,149.00
  Government sector7,571.007,729.007,641.007,769.007,057.006,765.00
  Higher education sector150,650.00153,755.00158,445.00163,838.00167,463.00170,230.00
  Private non-profit sector4,094.004,251.003,144.002,756.004,189.004,272.00
  Total251,358.00256,156.00267,699.00276,584.00284,483.00291,416.00
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector562,344.00595,568.00604,407.00611,233.00658,189.00669,815.00
  Government sector153,971.00158,456.00160,842.00156,820.00159,427.00159,415.00
  Higher education sector404,766.00408,048.00415,820.00422,397.00439,676.00448,384.00
  Private non-profit sector13,819.0013,697.009,756.0010,696.0010,914.00--
  Total1,134,900.001,175,769.001,190,826.001,201,146.001,268,205.001,288,700.00
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector746,841.00792,457.00829,869.00850,018.00907,377.00928,259.00
  Government sector204,195.00207,785.00211,046.00207,183.00210,086.00210,273.00
  Higher education sector656,965.00662,141.00676,012.00692,438.00712,525.00726,572.00
  Private non-profit sector18,802.0018,961.0013,921.0014,445.0015,913.0016,115.00
  Total1,626,803.001,681,345.001,730,848.001,764,084.001,845,901.001,881,219.00

Researchers by sector of performance

head count

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector28,325.00--30,374.00--36,947.00--
  Government sector3,215.003,962.004,061.004,472.004,501.00--
  Higher education sector31,353.0031,437.0032,077.0034,977.0031,909.00--
  Private non-profit sector314.00207.00212.00258.00352.00--
  Total63,207.00--66,724.00--73,709.00--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector51,586.0071,200.0074,632.0075,303.0075,164.00--
  Government sector8,101.0011,581.0011,315.0011,096.0011,972.00--
  Higher education sector24,385.0024,403.0024,590.0025,396.0025,810.00--
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00--
  Total84,072.00107,184.00110,536.00111,795.00112,946.00--
France
  Business enterprise sector197,056.00213,181.00220,321.00223,801.00----
  Government sector27,626.0028,051.0028,520.0028,403.00----
  Higher education sector110,149.00111,036.00113,058.00113,217.00----
  Private non-profit sector3,639.004,177.004,400.004,578.00----
  Total338,470.00356,445.00366,299.00369,999.00----
Germany
  Business enterprise sector216,320.00--221,362.00--252,897.00--
  Government sector64,279.0065,538.0066,264.0061,224.0062,790.00--
  Higher education sector241,411.00251,940.00261,657.00265,911.00270,343.00--
  Total522,010.00--549,283.00--586,030.00--
Austria
  Business enterprise sector29,734.00--33,643.00--36,984.00--
  Government sector3,337.00--3,472.00--3,747.00--
  Higher education sector32,008.00--33,781.00--36,699.00--
  Private non-profit sector530.00--552.00--621.00--
  Total65,609.00--71,448.00--78,051.00--
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector108,615.00113,509.00123,684.00133,891.00136,397.00--
  Government sector8,617.008,752.008,714.008,873.008,391.00--
  Higher education sector307,065.00315,230.00330,382.00342,696.00347,038.00--
  Private non-profit sector4,713.004,893.003,909.003,721.005,127.00--
  Total429,009.00442,385.00466,689.00489,181.00496,953.00--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector711,705.00--776,934.00--843,322.00--
  Government sector192,358.00198,457.00201,066.00199,221.00209,125.00--
  Higher education sector804,740.00816,623.00835,469.00849,076.00862,761.00--
  Private non-profit sector19,836.0019,706.0013,581.0014,364.00----
  Total1,728,638.00--1,827,050.00--1,929,760.00--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector932,783.00--1,047,836.00--1,139,969.00--
  Government sector255,580.00261,314.00267,201.00265,689.00277,072.00--
  Higher education sector1,315,882.001,333,310.001,373,019.001,405,886.001,415,771.00--
  Private non-profit sector25,708.0025,933.0018,890.0019,551.0020,845.00--
  Total2,529,953.00--2,706,946.00--2,853,656.00--

Researchers by sector of performance

% of total researchers, FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector50.0951.4651.2553.8853.5452.30
  Government sector6.527.887.897.997.607.83
  Higher education sector42.7040.2740.4537.7038.2939.20
  Private non-profit sector0.690.400.410.430.570.67
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector54.8059.6261.0959.9360.4661.40
  Government sector11.0211.7211.2411.3111.3111.12
  Higher education sector34.1828.6627.6728.7628.2327.47
  Private non-profit sector--------0.00--
France
  Business enterprise sector59.5660.4060.8160.5259.74--
  Government sector10.7610.5910.6010.5810.25--
  Higher education sector28.5527.7727.3327.4628.68--
  Private non-profit sector1.141.241.261.451.34--
Germany
  Business enterprise sector56.3056.6456.0256.2859.4958.84
  Government sector16.0015.7816.0115.0213.9213.50
  Higher education sector27.7027.5827.9628.7026.5927.65
Austria
  Business enterprise sector62.3463.4263.7063.9063.9863.98
  Government sector4.073.923.883.873.863.86
  Higher education sector32.8732.0031.7831.4731.3531.35
  Private non-profit sector0.720.660.650.760.800.80
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector35.4235.3036.7836.9637.1837.80
  Government sector3.013.022.852.812.482.32
  Higher education sector59.9360.0259.1959.2458.8758.41
  Private non-profit sector1.631.661.171.001.471.47
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector49.5550.6550.7650.8951.9051.98
  Government sector13.5713.4813.5113.0612.5712.37
  Higher education sector35.6734.7034.9235.1734.6734.79
  Private non-profit sector1.221.170.820.890.86--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector45.9147.1347.9548.1849.1649.34
  Government sector12.5512.3612.1911.7411.3811.18
  Higher education sector40.3839.3839.0639.2538.6038.62
  Private non-profit sector1.161.130.800.820.860.86

Regional data

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Researchers by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.470.520.520.600.620.60
  Government sector0.060.080.080.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.400.400.410.420.440.45
  Private non-profit sector0.010.000.000.000.010.01
  Total0.941.001.021.111.161.15
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector0.33--0.45--0.48--
  Government sector0.100.160.160.150.16--
  Higher education sector0.470.480.490.540.61--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.020.020.020.02--
  Total0.92--1.12--1.27--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector0.53--0.56--0.65--
  Government sector0.070.090.090.100.10--
  Higher education sector0.410.420.430.430.43--
  Private non-profit sector0.010.000.000.000.01--
  Total1.02--1.08--1.19--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector0.43--0.49--0.63--
  Government sector0.010.020.020.020.02--
  Higher education sector0.350.330.330.330.38--
  Private non-profit sector0.00--0.000.000.00--
  Total0.79--0.84--1.03--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.330.350.370.370.400.40
  Government sector0.090.090.090.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.290.290.300.310.310.31
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.720.750.770.780.810.81

Researchers by sector of performance

FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector21,382.0023,464.0023,759.0027,384.0028,474.0028,123.00
  Government sector2,781.003,591.003,657.004,062.004,041.004,208.00
  Higher education sector18,228.0018,361.0018,750.0019,157.0020,362.0021,080.00
  Private non-profit sector294.00181.00189.00217.00302.00360.00
  Total42,686.0045,597.0046,355.0050,820.0053,178.0053,771.00
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector2,277.00--3,090.49--3,285.02--
  Government sector709.701,069.051,095.511,055.311,120.88--
  Higher education sector3,249.703,303.253,401.433,715.394,182.42--
  Private non-profit sector72.30114.67111.32124.78163.75--
  Total6,308.80--7,698.75--8,752.06--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector13,855.50--14,755.84--17,489.29--
  Government sector1,926.402,337.102,378.292,715.042,622.05--
  Higher education sector10,704.2010,969.6411,276.2511,401.9911,523.71--
  Private non-profit sector222.1066.6277.1891.23136.78--
  Total26,708.20--28,487.56--31,771.83--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector5,249.70--5,912.91--7,699.59--
  Government sector144.90185.28183.28291.50298.45--
  Higher education sector4,274.304,087.634,072.604,039.964,655.59--
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.001.001.00--
  Total9,668.90--10,168.79--12,654.62--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector746,841.00792,457.00829,869.00850,018.00907,377.00928,259.00
  Government sector204,195.00207,785.00211,046.00207,183.00210,086.00210,273.00
  Higher education sector656,965.00662,141.00676,012.00692,438.00712,525.00726,572.00
  Private non-profit sector18,802.0018,961.0013,921.0014,445.0015,913.0016,115.00
  Total1,626,803.001,681,345.001,730,848.001,764,084.001,845,901.001,881,219.00

Researchers by sector of performance

head count

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector28,325.00--30,374.00--36,947.00--
  Government sector3,215.003,962.004,061.004,472.004,501.00--
  Higher education sector31,353.0031,437.0032,077.0034,977.0031,909.00--
  Private non-profit sector314.00207.00212.00258.00352.00--
  Total63,207.00--66,724.00--73,709.00--
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector3,134.00--4,463.00--5,661.00--
  Government sector790.001,206.001,231.001,179.001,258.00--
  Higher education sector7,036.006,958.007,135.007,874.006,682.00--
  Private non-profit sector76.00132.00125.00147.00191.00--
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector17,278.00--18,989.00--22,080.00--
  Government sector2,243.002,553.002,629.002,973.002,916.00--
  Higher education sector16,948.0017,204.0017,717.0019,131.0019,300.00--
  Private non-profit sector238.0075.0087.00107.00157.00--
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector7,913.00--6,922.00--9,206.00--
  Government sector182.00203.00201.00320.00327.00--
  Higher education sector7,369.007,275.007,225.007,972.005,927.00--
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.004.004.00--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector932,783.00--1,047,836.00--1,139,969.00--
  Government sector255,580.00261,314.00267,201.00265,689.00277,072.00--
  Higher education sector1,315,882.001,333,310.001,373,019.001,405,886.001,415,771.00--
  Private non-profit sector25,708.0025,933.0018,890.0019,551.0020,845.00--
  Total2,529,953.00--2,706,946.00--2,853,656.00--

Researchers by sector of performance

% of total researchers, FTE

 201120122013201420152016
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector50.0951.4651.2553.8853.5452.30
  Government sector6.527.887.897.997.607.83
  Higher education sector42.7040.2740.4537.7038.2939.20
  Private non-profit sector0.690.400.410.430.570.67
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector45.9147.1347.9548.1849.1649.34
  Government sector12.5512.3612.1911.7411.3811.18
  Higher education sector40.3839.3839.0639.2538.6038.62
  Private non-profit sector1.161.130.800.820.860.86

Description

  •  06/11/2018

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. Four sectors of performance are identified.

The business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The government sector is composed of all departments, offices and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with higher education establishments. (Definitions from the Frascati Manual).

Researchers are represented in full-time equivalent units. A person working half-time on R&D during the course of a given year is counted as 0.5 person year in FTE. FTE data are a more accurate measure of the volume of human resources devoted to research in a country than headcounts or jobs.

Employment (domestic concept - National accounts, ESA2010 11.11) covers all persons engaged in productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the national accounts. Employed persons are either employees (working by agreement for another resident unit and receiving remuneration) or self-employed (owners of unincorporated enterprises). The measure (in % of total employment) proposed by Eurostat using Labour Force Survey data (resident household concept) is not appropriate (especially for regional data) because R&D personnel is measured on a national/regional territory, independently of the personnel's place of residence.

Other languages

  • Chercheurs par secteur d'exécution
  • Onderzoekers per uitvoeringssector

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.