Researchers by sector of performance

National data

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Researchers by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.520.520.600.620.630.64
  Government sector0.080.080.090.090.090.11
  Higher education sector0.400.410.420.440.440.44
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.010.01--
  Total1.001.021.111.161.171.19
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector0.490.540.520.540.560.59
  Government sector0.100.100.100.100.100.11
  Higher education sector0.240.240.250.250.250.24
  Private non-profit sector------0.00----
  Total0.830.880.870.900.910.94
France
  Business enterprise sector0.580.600.590.61--0.62
  Government sector0.100.100.100.10--0.10
  Higher education sector0.260.270.270.29--0.29
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.01--0.02
  Total0.950.980.981.01--1.04
Germany
  Business enterprise sector0.470.470.460.540.540.56
  Government sector0.130.130.120.130.120.12
  Higher education sector0.230.230.240.240.250.26
  Total0.840.840.820.900.920.93
Austria
  Business enterprise sector0.600.610.640.650.650.67
  Government sector0.040.040.040.040.080.08
  Higher education sector0.300.300.320.320.310.32
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.940.961.001.021.051.08
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector0.300.330.330.340.350.34
  Government sector0.030.030.030.020.020.02
  Higher education sector0.520.530.530.540.530.53
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.860.890.900.910.910.90
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector0.400.410.410.430.440.46
  Government sector0.110.110.100.110.100.10
  Higher education sector0.280.280.280.290.290.29
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.01--0.01
  Total0.790.800.800.840.840.86
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.350.370.370.400.410.43
  Government sector0.090.090.090.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.300.300.310.310.310.32
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.750.770.780.800.810.84

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector23,464.0023,759.0027,384.0028,474.0029,532.0030,326.00
  Government sector3,591.003,657.004,062.004,041.004,068.005,136.00
  Higher education sector18,361.0018,750.0019,157.0020,362.0020,378.0020,605.00
  Private non-profit sector181.00189.00217.00302.00302.00--
  Total45,597.0046,355.0050,820.0053,178.0054,280.0056,067.00
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector43,665.0046,838.0045,684.0047,860.0050,160.0053,515.00
  Government sector8,581.008,616.008,624.008,953.008,714.009,586.00
  Higher education sector20,990.0021,216.0021,921.0022,342.0022,244.0022,200.00
  Private non-profit sector------0.00----
  Total73,235.0076,670.0076,229.0079,155.0081,117.0085,300.00
France
  Business enterprise sector156,392.00161,882.00161,769.00165,845.00--173,880.00
  Government sector27,413.0028,227.0028,276.0028,445.00--28,480.00
  Higher education sector71,890.0072,749.0073,393.0079,622.00--81,560.00
  Private non-profit sector3,218.003,364.003,870.003,720.00--4,660.00
  Total258,913.00266,222.00267,308.00277,631.00--288,580.00
Germany
  Business enterprise sector199,623.00198,585.00198,076.00230,823.00235,758.00246,842.00
  Government sector55,597.0056,755.0052,854.0054,011.0053,971.0053,700.00
  Higher education sector97,199.0099,123.00100,992.00103,148.00109,877.00113,000.00
  Total352,419.00354,463.00351,923.00387,982.00399,605.00413,542.00
Austria
  Business enterprise sector25,180.0025,752.0027,361.0027,872.0028,426.0029,558.00
  Government sector1,555.001,567.001,654.001,682.003,442.003,579.00
  Higher education sector12,704.0012,846.0013,462.0013,658.0013,464.0014,000.00
  Private non-profit sector262.00261.00329.00350.00368.00382.00
  Total39,701.0040,426.0042,805.0043,562.0045,699.0047,519.00
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector90,422.0098,469.00102,221.00105,774.00110,149.00109,856.00
  Government sector7,729.007,641.007,769.007,057.007,047.006,789.00
  Higher education sector153,755.00158,445.00163,838.00167,463.00167,519.00168,655.00
  Private non-profit sector4,251.003,144.002,756.004,189.004,208.004,374.00
  Total256,156.00267,699.00276,584.00284,483.00288,922.00289,674.00
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector595,710.00604,407.00611,397.00658,189.00680,141.00715,397.00
  Government sector158,494.00160,842.00156,838.00159,427.00160,403.00163,009.00
  Higher education sector414,260.00422,683.00426,205.00436,902.00440,160.00454,338.00
  Private non-profit sector13,700.009,756.0010,702.0010,914.00--11,277.00
  Total1,182,164.001,197,688.001,205,141.001,265,431.001,292,316.001,344,020.00
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector792,589.00829,869.00850,179.00907,775.00952,203.001,008,933.00
  Government sector207,819.00211,046.00207,200.00210,086.00200,214.00204,386.00
  Higher education sector668,367.00682,875.00696,249.00709,754.00719,899.00743,364.00
  Private non-profit sector18,964.0013,921.0014,451.0015,913.0017,035.0017,090.00
  Total1,687,740.001,737,710.001,768,078.001,843,528.001,889,350.001,973,773.00

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

head count

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector--30,374.00--36,947.00----
  Government sector3,962.004,061.004,472.004,501.00----
  Higher education sector31,437.0032,077.0034,977.0031,909.00----
  Private non-profit sector207.00212.00258.00352.00----
  Total--66,724.00--73,709.00----
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector71,200.0074,632.0075,303.0075,164.0076,751.00--
  Government sector11,581.0011,315.0011,096.0011,972.0012,275.00--
  Higher education sector24,403.0024,590.0025,396.0025,810.0025,563.00--
  Private non-profit sector------0.00----
  Total107,184.00110,536.00111,795.00112,946.00114,589.00--
France
  Business enterprise sector213,181.00220,321.00223,801.00------
  Government sector28,051.0028,520.0028,403.00------
  Higher education sector111,036.00113,058.00113,217.00------
  Private non-profit sector4,177.004,400.004,578.00------
  Total356,445.00366,299.00369,999.00------
Germany
  Business enterprise sector--221,362.00--252,897.00----
  Government sector65,538.0066,264.0061,224.0062,790.0062,840.00--
  Higher education sector251,940.00261,657.00265,911.00270,343.00271,953.00--
  Total--549,283.00--586,030.00----
Austria
  Business enterprise sector--33,643.00--36,984.00----
  Government sector--3,472.00--3,747.00----
  Higher education sector--33,781.00--36,699.00----
  Private non-profit sector--552.00--621.00----
  Total--71,448.00--78,051.00----
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector113,509.00123,684.00133,891.00136,397.00141,873.00--
  Government sector8,752.008,714.008,873.008,391.008,257.00--
  Higher education sector315,230.00330,382.00342,696.00347,038.00355,637.00--
  Private non-profit sector4,893.003,909.003,721.005,127.005,214.00--
  Total442,385.00466,689.00489,181.00496,953.00510,980.00--
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector--776,934.00--843,321.00----
  Government sector198,457.00201,066.00199,236.00209,125.00213,205.00--
  Higher education sector822,738.00842,160.00850,475.00860,282.00855,183.00--
  Private non-profit sector19,706.0013,581.0014,374.00------
  Total--1,833,741.00--1,927,280.00----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector--1,047,836.00--1,145,636.00----
  Government sector261,314.00267,201.00265,703.00278,334.00270,834.00--
  Higher education sector1,339,425.001,379,709.001,407,286.001,419,773.001,435,405.00--
  Private non-profit sector25,933.0018,890.0019,561.0020,940.0022,321.00--
  Total--2,713,637.00--2,864,683.00----

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

% of total researchers, FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector51.4651.2553.8853.5454.4154.09
  Government sector7.887.897.997.607.499.16
  Higher education sector40.2740.4537.7038.2937.5436.75
  Private non-profit sector0.400.410.430.570.56--
Netherlands
  Business enterprise sector59.6261.0959.9360.4661.8462.74
  Government sector11.7211.2411.3111.3110.7411.24
  Higher education sector28.6627.6728.7628.2327.4226.03
  Private non-profit sector------0.00----
France
  Business enterprise sector60.4060.8160.5259.74--60.25
  Government sector10.5910.6010.5810.25--9.87
  Higher education sector27.7727.3327.4628.68--28.26
  Private non-profit sector1.241.261.451.34--1.61
Germany
  Business enterprise sector56.6456.0256.2859.4959.0059.69
  Government sector15.7816.0115.0213.9213.5112.99
  Higher education sector27.5827.9628.7026.5927.5027.33
Austria
  Business enterprise sector63.4263.7063.9263.9862.2062.20
  Government sector3.923.883.863.867.537.53
  Higher education sector32.0031.7831.4531.3529.4629.46
  Private non-profit sector0.660.650.770.800.810.80
United Kingdom
  Business enterprise sector35.3036.7836.9637.1838.1237.92
  Government sector3.022.852.812.482.442.34
  Higher education sector60.0259.1959.2458.8757.9858.22
  Private non-profit sector1.661.171.001.471.461.51
Euro Area 19
  Business enterprise sector50.3950.4650.7352.0152.6353.23
  Government sector13.4113.4313.0112.6012.4112.13
  Higher education sector35.0435.2935.3734.5334.0633.80
  Private non-profit sector1.160.810.890.86--0.84
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector46.9647.7648.0949.2450.4051.12
  Government sector12.3112.1511.7211.4010.6010.36
  Higher education sector39.6039.3039.3838.5038.1037.66
  Private non-profit sector1.120.800.820.860.900.87

Data for the last year are provisional

Regional data

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Researchers by sector of performance

% of total employment, numerator in FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector0.520.520.600.620.630.64
  Government sector0.080.080.090.090.090.11
  Higher education sector0.400.410.420.440.440.44
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.010.01--
  Total1.001.021.111.161.171.19
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.45--0.48----
  Government sector0.160.160.150.16----
  Higher education sector0.480.490.540.61----
  Private non-profit sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Total--1.12--1.27----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.56--0.65----
  Government sector0.090.090.100.10----
  Higher education sector0.420.430.430.43----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.000.000.01----
  Total--1.08--1.19----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--0.49--0.63----
  Government sector0.020.020.020.02----
  Higher education sector0.330.330.330.38----
  Private non-profit sector--0.000.000.00----
  Total--0.84--1.03----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector0.350.370.370.400.410.43
  Government sector0.090.090.090.090.090.09
  Higher education sector0.300.300.310.310.310.32
  Private non-profit sector0.010.010.010.010.010.01
  Total0.750.770.780.800.810.84

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector23,464.0023,759.0027,384.0028,474.0029,532.0030,326.00
  Government sector3,591.003,657.004,062.004,041.004,068.005,136.00
  Higher education sector18,361.0018,750.0019,157.0020,362.0020,378.0020,605.00
  Private non-profit sector181.00189.00217.00302.00302.00--
  Total45,597.0046,355.0050,820.0053,178.0054,280.0056,067.00
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--3,090.49--3,285.02----
  Government sector1,069.051,095.511,055.311,120.88----
  Higher education sector3,303.253,401.433,715.394,182.42----
  Private non-profit sector114.67111.32124.78163.75----
  Total--7,698.75--8,752.06----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--14,755.84--17,489.29----
  Government sector2,337.102,378.292,715.042,622.05----
  Higher education sector10,969.6411,276.2511,401.9911,523.71----
  Private non-profit sector66.6277.1891.23136.78----
  Total--28,487.56--31,771.83----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--5,912.91--7,699.59----
  Government sector185.28183.28291.50298.45----
  Higher education sector4,087.634,072.604,039.964,655.59----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.001.001.00----
  Total--10,168.79--12,654.62----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector792,589.00829,869.00850,179.00907,775.00952,203.001,008,933.00
  Government sector207,819.00211,046.00207,200.00210,086.00200,214.00204,386.00
  Higher education sector668,367.00682,875.00696,249.00709,754.00719,899.00743,364.00
  Private non-profit sector18,964.0013,921.0014,451.0015,913.0017,035.0017,090.00
  Total1,687,740.001,737,710.001,768,078.001,843,528.001,889,350.001,973,773.00

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

head count

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector--30,374.00--36,947.00----
  Government sector3,962.004,061.004,472.004,501.00----
  Higher education sector31,437.0032,077.0034,977.0031,909.00----
  Private non-profit sector207.00212.00258.00352.00----
  Total--66,724.00--73,709.00----
Brussels-Capital Region
  Business enterprise sector--4,463.00--5,661.00----
  Government sector1,206.001,231.001,179.001,258.00----
  Higher education sector6,958.007,135.007,874.006,682.00----
  Private non-profit sector132.00125.00147.00191.00----
Flemish Region
  Business enterprise sector--18,989.00--22,080.00----
  Government sector2,553.002,629.002,973.002,916.00----
  Higher education sector17,204.0017,717.0019,131.0019,300.00----
  Private non-profit sector75.0087.00107.00157.00----
Walloon Region
  Business enterprise sector--6,922.00--9,206.00----
  Government sector203.00201.00320.00327.00----
  Higher education sector7,275.007,225.007,972.005,927.00----
  Private non-profit sector0.000.004.004.00----
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector--1,047,836.00--1,145,636.00----
  Government sector261,314.00267,201.00265,703.00278,334.00270,834.00--
  Higher education sector1,339,425.001,379,709.001,407,286.001,419,773.001,435,405.00--
  Private non-profit sector25,933.0018,890.0019,561.0020,940.0022,321.00--
  Total--2,713,637.00--2,864,683.00----

Data for the last year are provisional

Researchers by sector of performance

% of total researchers, FTE

 201220132014201520162017
Belgium
  Business enterprise sector51.4651.2553.8853.5454.4154.09
  Government sector7.887.897.997.607.499.16
  Higher education sector40.2740.4537.7038.2937.5436.75
  Private non-profit sector0.400.410.430.570.56--
Europe 28
  Business enterprise sector46.9647.7648.0949.2450.4051.12
  Government sector12.3112.1511.7211.4010.6010.36
  Higher education sector39.6039.3039.3838.5038.1037.66
  Private non-profit sector1.120.800.820.860.900.87

Data for the last year are provisional

Description

  •  24/05/2019

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned. Four sectors of performance are identified.

The business enterprise sector includes all firms, organizations, and institutions whose primary activity is the market production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, and the private non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

The government sector is composed of all departments, offices and other bodies which furnish but normally do not sell to the community those common services, other than higher education, which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided and administer the state, economic, and social policy of the community. (Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector). This sector is also composed of private non-profit institutes controlled and mainly financed by government.

The private non-profit sector includes non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households.

The higher education sector is composed of all universities, colleges of technology, and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with higher education establishments. (Definitions from the Frascati Manual).

Researchers are represented in full-time equivalent units. A person working half-time on R&D during the course of a given year is counted as 0.5 person year in FTE. FTE data are a more accurate measure of the volume of human resources devoted to research in a country than headcounts or jobs.

Employment (domestic concept - National accounts, ESA2010 11.11) covers all persons engaged in productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the national accounts. Employed persons are either employees (working by agreement for another resident unit and receiving remuneration) or self-employed (owners of unincorporated enterprises). The measure (in % of total employment) proposed by Eurostat using Labour Force Survey data (resident household concept) is not appropriate (especially for regional data) because R&D personnel is measured on a national/regional territory, independently of the personnel's place of residence.

Other languages

  • Chercheurs par secteur d'exécution
  • Onderzoekers per uitvoeringssector

Source: Eurostat, Science and technology statistics, Belgian Science Policy.